By 2016, a pipeline called Line 61 will carry 50 million gallons of oil per day under the upper St. Croix River and its tributaries the Eau Claire, Totogatic and the Namekagon Rivers.
Troublesome tar sands: Line 61 carries heavy crude oil from Canada. It is so thick it requires dilution with other chemicals and high temperatures to flow, and it can sink in water.
Largest inland oil spill in American history: Enbridge, the company that owns Line 61, was responsible for a 2010 pipeline spill that polluted 36 miles of Michigan’s Kalamazoo River.
Under the radar: Line 61 was constructed in 2006-2007 with little environmental review or citizen input, and only for 400,000 gallons per day. The current expansion has received almost no public scrutiny.