Tree Time


Pining for Better Habitat

Restoring natural forests offers an opportunity to help birds and other wildlife.

Pine plantation on the Namekagon River

Pine plantation on the Namekagon River

Ask any carpenter; the best tools have a certain beauty to them. It’s a combination of things: quality of materials, workmanship, elements of design that together make the tool work better. It might require more of an investment on the front end, but such a tool is a pleasure to use, it gets the job done, and if you treat it right, will likely last long enough to pass along to the next generation.

The native plant communities of the St. Croix Valley are like that.  They are scenic, yes. But the valley’s cliff communities, forests, seepage swamps, barrens, savannas and prairies have a kind of beauty that goes beyond appearance. Simply put, they work. The raw materials of particular native species, their relative abundance, the physical structure of their arrangement on this landscape with its topography and geologic history—these are the elements of a “working beauty” that sets this place apart,  even from many parks and designated open spaces.

The greatest evidence of this working beauty is the diversity of wildlife able to survive and reproduce here, whether native brook trout or other game fish, raptors or songbirds, rare turtles or mussels.  As appropriate habitat continues to be whittled away in surrounding areas, the remaining native plant communities in the river corridor have only increased in importance for many of these species. Consider a migratory songbird that departed from the St. Croix Valley in autumn and is returning from its winter in the tropics. Will it find the particular environment that it needs for successful nesting? From one year to the next, the answer to that question can change.

Red pine plantation near Trego, Wis. (Photo by Andy Wright)

Red pine plantation near Trego, Wis. (Photo by Andy Wright)

While we can protect existing native plant communities in the river corridor, we can’t create more—at least not with the complexity of those established over the centuries. But we can make improvements to adjacent lands through thoughtful restoration. It may be surprising, given the valley’s legacy as a giant in the white pine logging industry, but one of our best opportunities for habitat improvement may involve taking a fresh look at the role of pines in the St. Croix Valley landscape.

This time, the focus is on pines that did not occur naturally, but were planted with good intentions.

According to the National Park Service, there are 65 stands and a total of 200 acres of red pine plantation on public lands within the designated boundaries of the St. Croix National Scenic Riverway. Most are planted in long rows with little diversity in the understory, sometimes with only a blanket of dried needles on the forest floor.  They provide some shade, certainly some cover in the canopy, but relatively little in the way of habitat for birds and other wildlife. What they lack most is structure: the inviting layers of vegetation such as flowering plants, woody shrubs, and young trees that would otherwise be sources of food in the form of insects and berries, as well as nest material and cover for wildlife.

Red pine plantation on the Namekagon River

Red pine plantation on the Namekagon River

Pine plantations are monocultures—an environment dominated by a single species. As such, they are less resilient than more diverse native plant communities; less productive (in terms of the ability to efficiently translate the sun’s energy into growth, or bio-mass); less able to cope with stresses such as drought and disease; less able to support a diversity of life. Without purchasing a single additional acre of land for our local national park, we can vastly improve its habitat value by transforming these veritable deserts into a welcoming place for wildlife.

Many of us have grown up appreciating trees. Could it be that we can look beyond our appreciation of any one tree, even a stand of planted trees, in deference to a working beauty? What would it take to make a red pine plantation more inviting to wildlife?  Will some red pines need to come down, to let in more light so that the understory can develop? Can we plant native seeds or plants to help it along?

In the coming months and years, we can witness—even participate in—the process of making this landscape increasingly valuable to wildlife. Sounds like a privilege to me.

Conservation news on St. Croix 360 is supported by the St. Croix River Association, which works to protect, restore and celebrate the St. Croix River and its watershed.

7 Responses to “Pining for Better Habitat”

  1. Willy53 says:

    This concept of diversity and NATURAL, indigenous habitat is incredibly important. It is at the core of the debate about how Minnesota and the DNR manage all of their state lands and forests. Allowing logging and then replanting with Aspen which encourages grass and then reharvesting for pulp in thirty years is a stunning ignorance of diversity and the importance of it. Plumb Creek, a giant corporate lumbering interest, recently made the largest purchase of land in the Upper Peninsula ever, purchasing six million acres from Cleveland Cliffs mining conglomerate. They are systematically clearcutting huge swaths of naturally regenerating forests (tracts that are methodically marching through successional states to a more climax and mature forest). Once clear cut these areas simply burn for several years, dramatically altering the climate near them by raising the temperature and creating heat islands. Then Plumb Creek plants a monoculture of Red Pine that essentially turns the ground into a desert of pine. How many generations can that ground tolerate of monoculture and what kind of micro environment will the proliferation of these mono forests produce? They do nothing for the long term health and preservation of what should be a healthy forest. It is my contention that even selctive cutting of forests is not healthy. The compaction of soil that results dramatically alters the regeneration of certain species. But thinning and allowing a type of natural reseeding and release of smaller trees would be a better alternative although it is not a way to promote a mature forest that helps preserve so many habitats and the species that live in them. With the clear cutting marching across the UP and an anti environmental government planted in Wisconsin the St. Croix watershed has never faced so many pressures. Add that to a climate that is producing more violent storms with wind shear that easily uproot older mature trees and we are quickly reaching a critical tipping point in the capacity of the St. Croix Valley to protect the waters that flow through it and the species that try to thrive there.

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